Sneak Peek! New Media issue of Exhibitionist Journal

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Each jam-packed issue of Exhibitionist contains articles on exhibition development, theory and practice, book reviews, exhibition critiques, and nuts and bolts advice. The Fall 2013 issue will be of particular interest to you, dear readers, because it focuses on new mediahow emerging technologies are making museums more mobile, personal, global, customized, compact, and widespread all at once. I contributed two pieces to the issue and I’m thrilled to share the otherwise-only-available-in-print articles with you here.

(Full disclosure: I serve on the Editorial Advisory Board for the Exhibitionist journal, a volunteer position for which I receive no compensation.)

The first is part of regular feature of the journal called Exhibition Studies which focuses on important questions in museum studies. My piece, “Learning and Sharing Expertise with Social Media,” suggests ways that faculty, students, and museum professionals alike can use social media to open up access to expertise, participate in dialogue, and enhance learning throughout the field.

The second is a “Glossary of New Media Terms,” which I co-authored with Ellen Snyder-Grenier. An evolving vocabulary is developing along with new technology and we developed this list—which includes everything from APIs to Virtual Reality—with readers new to the language of the digital world in mind. It is most useful as a companion to the full issue, which highlights the myriad uses of digital technology in today’s museum exhibitions.

I also highly recommend this fantastic article about using mobile technologies to foster meaningful visitor engagement (and not just deliver more content): “Catching Our Breath: Assessing Digital Technologies for Meaningful Engagement,” by Stacey Mann, Jennifer Moses and Matthew Fisher. This piece and two other articles are available for free digital preview on the Exhibitionist website and will be featured in a series of Twitter chats (hosted by moi) with the authors in early 2014.  Stay tuned to @namexhibitions for details.

The new media issue also features thought-provoking reviews of Gallery One at the Cleveland Museum of Art, a case study on the Newseum’s display of unfiltered user-generated content, cutting-edge examples of virtual reality in archaeology exhibitions, and a useful social media review (in place of the journal’s regular book review) by the fabulous Kate Haley Goldman. If any of these topics pique your interest, I encourage you to consider subscribing today. Upcoming issues will focus on: Exhibitions as Intentionally Designed Spaces; and Teaching/Learning about Exhibit Design and Development (including 3D and digital).

Happy reading!

Note: These articles first appeared in Exhibitionist (Fall 2013) Vol.32.2 and are reproduced with permission.

Beyond the #selfie: Connecting teens and art through social media

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Tweeting, Tumbling, snapping photos–how can we turn typical teen behaviors in the museum into meaningful learning experiences? At the National Gallery of Art, thousands of middle and high school students visit each year. Most are not pre-registered, do not participate in formal educational programs such as tours, and are set loose on their own to explore the museum. To reach and engage this audience, the Gallery created a printed guide to the permanent collection (called #atNGA) that encourages looking carefully at works of art, making connections between art and life, exploring art as historical and cultural expression, and reflecting on the creative spirit. What makes this guide different is that each work of art is paired with a social media prompt such as: take and share a photo (via Instagram), craft a text response (via Twitter), or ponder a question with a friend. By explicitly inviting and helping to shape teens’ social media interactions with the Gallery, we hope to turn what might otherwise be a frivolous encounter into a learning experience. This presentation will share the results of our evaluation research and discuss the broader challenges and opportunities of connecting with teens via social media.

A fictional artist and The Monster at the End of This Book!


This is the second in a series of posts about my experience as a student in the MoMA-led MOOC “Art and Inquiry.” Looking forward to hearing your thoughts! If you are also a student in the course, I encourage you to respond via the Coursera forum.

Practice Developing Open-Ended Questions

After a review of different kinds of questions and their role in inquiry-based learning, we were encouraged to try the technique for ourselves. Here are the instructions we received (I encourage you to try it out, even if you aren’t taking the course!).

Browse through MoMA’s online Collection and choose an image. Research some information about the work of art using and/or other online sources. Respond to these questions:

* What drew you to this work of art?
* What information were you able to find out about this work?
* If you were to teach with this work, what aspects would you like to introduce to your students?

My selection: The Bricks by Reena Spaulings (2006)

Reena SpaulingsThe Bricks, 2006
Synthetic polymer paint on canvas
Museum of Modern Art

What drew you to this work of art?

The work first caught my eye because it reminded me of the Little Golden Book, The Monster at the End of This Book, in which Grover (of Sesame Street) puts up all kinds of barriers (including a brick wall) in an attempt to warn the reader about a ferocious creature she will encounter if she continues to turn the page.

**Spoiler Alert**
If hate to spoil the plot for those of you who haven’t read it but the monster at the end of the book turns out to be Grover himself. He is very embarrassed to have caused such a fuss.
/**Spoiler Alert**

This canvas (and the book) depicts items that we think of as heavy and made to withstand the elements. Brick walls are impenetrable, stubborn, heavy obstacles; conversing with someone who is “like speaking to a brick wall” is a frustrating, cold experience. We say that difficult, emotional things hit us “like a ton of bricks.” In the 21st century, we discuss the binaries of “bricks and mortar” versus the virtual; sometimes the institution is seen as solid and timeless, other times the phrase is used to refer to an outmoded way of being in an increasingly digital world.

Both the book and this work of art are also playful with this heavy subject matter. It is easy enough to turn a page in a book, despite a depiction of onerous bricks. Similarly, the draping of the canvas makes the bricks appear lightweight, flimsy, and most certainly faux.

In addition to the visual appeal and sense of familiarity of the work itself, I was also drawn to the female name of the artist (I have a background in feminist theory). A quick glance at the MoMA description for the object intrigued me even more… “Reena Spaulings is a fictional artist and art dealer and literary persona. Under her name, several artists conceived and executed this painting, which features a crudely rendered brick–and–mortar pattern.” I was hooked and wanted to learn more!

What information were you able to find out about this work?

The work is housed in the Paintings and Sculpture department but is classified by MoMA as a painting, though it does not strike the viewer as as a typical painting. The brick pattern is painted on both sides of on an unstretched canvas and the work is displayed three dimensionally. It is versatile and “can be displayed in a number of ways: folded, open, lying on the floor, draped over objects, hung as backdrop, or in a combination of these options, as seen here.” The canvas itself is forty by eight feet, a massive size which doesn’t translate well through the small thumbnail images found on the Web.

I was not surprised to learn that the brick pattern was inspired by the Lower East Side of New York, as brick always reminds me first and foremost of a East Coast urban areas. Manhattan is the location of the Reena Spaulings gallery.

2005 New York Times review refers to the work as part of a “suite of handmade flags, each the same size, each of different design, none exactly commanding a salute.”  This is the only reference I found that referred to the work as a flag, a concept which adds an interesting dimension to the work and how it is displayed. I would love to find a photo of the series together to get a better sense of its original display context.

The headline of a New York Magazine review, “Who Are These People?” sums up the bewildered response I have to the idea of a fictional artist who is actually made up of a rotating array of artists, including Emily Sundblad (founder and director of the eponymous gallery). The NYMag piece explores this strange identity a bit but also calls the group to task for using the fake identity construct to avoid accountability and also get good press by, well, writing about it themselves (co-director John Kelsey writes for Artforum). The author goes so far as to call them “art pranksters.”

In a less-than-glowing 2006 review for Untitled magazine, critic Cameron Irving describes the work: “The self-consciously painted brickwork only achieves a bare semblance of recognition, as if to ape the aesthetics of a ‘community project’ and sneer at the orthodox political correctness of collaboration.” He describes the experience of the show of “ironic painting” as “irksome” and cites his concern about “the ease at which work of questionable quality can slip through panoptic structures engineered by collaborative art groups.”

Art student Philippa Ho has a less negative take on the work, as evidenced in the evocative interpretive notes she lists on her blog:

If you were to teach with this work, what aspects would you like to introduce to your students?

In my case, I am taking this course to think more about how I might use objects to generate conversation between a museum and its audiences via social media. So my “students” in this case are informal learners or simply fans of museums interested in viewing and discussing art casually. The inquiry-based method of learning seems to very much rely on a series of questions that hang well together. I am skeptical that any of the questions I pose below would work well on its own, as can easily happen when a social media post is taken out of context.

At any rate, I think there is a lot of richness to cover about the formal elements of the work, the symbolism and physicality of brick walls, and the history behind the makers of the works.

I might ask:

* What is interesting to you about the material used to make this work?

* How would you describe the role or function of brick walls in everyday life?

* How is this depiction of a brick wall the same or different from brick walls in everyday life?

* How does it feel to see a brick wall that is limp and hanging?

* Is this how you would choose to display the work?

* Are there any clues about who made the work of art?

* Why might the people who made this work have chosen to work together and under a false name?

What questions does this work raise for you? How might you lead a guided inquiry of this work, either in a gallery or online?

How does inquiry-based education work when learners are distributed and asynchronous?


I’ve just wrapped up week 1 of my first MOOC experience, Art and Inquiry: Museum Teaching Strategies for Your Classroomtaught by MoMA educator Lisa Mazzola on Coursera. (It is still open and I encourage you to join! It’s not too late. If you’re not entirely sure what a MOOC is, see this helpful explanation of a Massive Open Online Course from Educause.)

[Note: If you are participating in the course, you can find this same post in the Coursera forum. Would love for you to respond there.]

As a museum professional who specializes in digital engagement and a museum studies professor, I come to this course with several layers of questions related to inquiry-based learning and how it intersects with online platforms:

What are the best practices for inquiry-based learning in art museums?

After nearly a decade in a national history museum, I am fairly new to art museums and how they engage learners with works of art, as opposed to other kinds of museum objects.

What aspects of inquiry-based education translate well to digital spaces?

Should I change my approach as an educator for formal online education experiences (e.g., online university courses) vs. informal learning experiences (e.g., social media)? My professional speciality is digital outreach and engagement for museums and other nonprofits, with an emphasis on both learning and marketing outcomes. I am also an adjunct professor for the Johns Hopkins University museum studies program, which involves teaching entirely online. I’m curious to explore further how the context of the learner impacts the effectiveness of inquiry-based education . . . for example, does a Twitter follower get as much out of inquiry as a formal student?

What are the challenges that educators face in using inquiry-based methods online to engage learners that are not in the same room and are not participating at the same time?

In teaching online graduate courses, I have found the asynchronous nature makes the process of constructing knowledge together as a group more difficult than I experienced when teaching graduate students in a physical classroom.

How does observing an object digitally change the experience of observation for the learner?

How does being online affect some of the other aspects of inquiry-based learning, such as communicating with a group about one’s ideas and interpretation? As someone who designs digital museum experiences, I am especially interested in outreach projects for audiences who cannot come and see museum collections in person. How does this change the way I structure an inquiry-based experience?

How does a MOOC really work?

I’ve been reading about them for months but this is my first personal experience as a student in a MOOC.

Should museums be using MOOCs as an educational platform?

And for what audiences (e.g., adults, teens, teacher professional development, homeschool audiences)? Part of my role at a national art museum is to figure out how to leverage our expertise and resources for maximum impact. I am curious about how museum educators can bring something unique to the MOOC space and am excited to learn from the model MoMA is presenting here.

So far I have found the readings and lecture video to be quite good at addressing the first question (how can inquiry-based education work in a physical location). I highly recommend Laurel Schmidt’s “Great Teachers Don’t Take No (or Yes) for an Answer: Teaching by Asking Instead of Telling” and John Hennigar Shuh’s “Teaching Yourself to Teach With Objects” (I was able to read both in the course of two metro rides).

I look forward to noodling over some of my other burning questions with other Coursera students as we learn by doing, digitally.

Note: You can follow some of the discussion about the MOOC on Twitter using the hashtag #artinquiry.

What are your thoughts on how inquiry-based learning translates to online learning? Does it matter if the learners think of themselves as such (e.g., part of a formal class environment) or not (e.g., simply following an educational institution on social media)?

Image credit: Network visualization by Flickr user yaph

AAM 2013 Roundup


A Storify roundup of highlights from this year’s American Alliance of Museums Meeting in Baltimore.

Opening Up Museum Studies with Social Media

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How can museum studies professors—and educators of all stripes—incorporate social media into their teaching? How does social media help us enhance learning and open up access to expertise? I was invited to give a brief presentation on this topic for COMPT (Committee on Museum Professional Training) at the AAM (American Alliance of Museums) 2013 annual meeting. My talk covered the social dimension of learning, how social media has changed museums and its audiences, and examples of social media tools being incorporated into the curriculum.


  • Learning is social – Knowledge is socially constructed – Social media supports the learner
  • 3 Cs of Social Learning: Consume, Communicate, Collaborate
  • My favorite example of museum studies, social media, and social learning:, which blends wikis, podcasting, and blogging to provide students direct experience talking to experts around the globe and the ability to share their work with the world through open access.

#musesocial: What’s the point of social media for museums?


Before we can measure social media success, we must first be able to answer the question: Why is social media important for museums and what are we hoping to achieve? On April 23, 2013, the museum technology community gathered for a #musesocial chat to discuss connecting our social media efforts to broader strategies and goals. The chat was hosted by me (@danamuses) and Vicki Portway (@sluggernova) with help from Erin Blasco (@erinblasco).

With more than 1,200 fascinating tweets sent in the span of less than 2 hours, the Storify archive was a challenge to put together. Make sure to find the bit about SPARKLE MAGIC under question 7. It was the highlight of the chat for me. (I even designed a t-shirt to commemorate it.) Enjoy!