Each jam-packed issue of Exhibitionistcontains articles on exhibition development, theory and practice, book reviews, exhibition critiques, and nuts and bolts advice. The Fall 2013 issue will be of particular interest to you, dear readers, because it focuses on new media—how emerging technologies are making museums more mobile, personal, global, customized, compact, and widespread all at once. I contributed two pieces to the issue and I’m thrilled to share the otherwise-only-available-in-print articles with you here.
(Full disclosure: I serve on the Editorial Advisory Board for the Exhibitionist journal, a volunteer position for which I receive no compensation.)
The first is part of regular feature of the journal called Exhibition Studies which focuses on important questions in museum studies. My piece, “Learning and Sharing Expertise with Social Media,” suggests ways that faculty, students, and museum professionals alike can use social media to open up access to expertise, participate in dialogue, and enhance learning throughout the field.
The second is a “Glossary of New Media Terms,” which I co-authored with Ellen Snyder-Grenier. An evolving vocabulary is developing along with new technology and we developed this list—which includes everything from APIs to Virtual Reality—with readers new to the language of the digital world in mind. It is most useful as a companion to the full issue, which highlights the myriad uses of digital technology in today’s museum exhibitions.
The new media issue also features thought-provoking reviews of Gallery One at the Cleveland Museum of Art, a case study on the Newseum’s display of unfiltered user-generated content, cutting-edge examples of virtual reality in archaeology exhibitions, and a useful social media review (in place of the journal’s regular book review) by the fabulous Kate Haley Goldman. If any of these topics pique your interest, I encourage you to consider subscribing today. Upcoming issues will focus on: Exhibitions as Intentionally Designed Spaces; and Teaching/Learning about Exhibit Design and Development (including 3D and digital).
Note: These articles first appeared in Exhibitionist (Fall 2013) Vol.32.2 and are reproduced with permission.
I did enjoy the Romare Bearden Black Odyssey Remixes iPad app as a platform to explore the motifs and techniques of an artist on my own terms. I especially liked that I could add audio recordings and text of my choosing to truly customize my creations. Is this something I’ll use over and over again, however? Most likely not.
Science museums are doing some really interesting things with citizen science apps that are meant to be useful to the individual and the collective. Check out Leafsnap and Project Noah for two examples of apps designed to be used out in the world, giving users something to do that contributes to the field at large (in this case take photos of trees or animals to identify them but also add data about populations to a larger dataset). Like the Magic Tate Ball, these are programs that can be useful over the long haul and are designed for repeated use.
I was a fan of The Extraordinaries app (which I believe is now defunct), whose premise was making good use of those chunks of minutes people have in their day (on the bus, waiting in line, etc.) to do something useful, such as tag images from museum collections with relevant terms to help improve search. This fills the same kind of niche as Candy Crush Saga, which is easy to pick up and put down at will over and over again.
In sum, I do agree that many museum apps don’t live up to the full potential of the medium—they are glorified audio tours, or memory-greedy exhibition brochures. But I also think there are many other examples of museums pushing the boundaries by going beyond the museum visit. The apps I describe get at the core of what makes museums so exciting and important to society—the incredibly rich store of human history and creativity they preserve and provide access to, and their ongoing research that makes our world a better place.
It seems to me that some of the most successful museum apps do a few things well:
* meet a real need or desire in their users
* give people something meaningful or exciting to do
* take the museum’s mission and content outside of its walls
* are a result of an interesting collaboration
I personally look forward to working on mobile app projects with other interested parties who can bring a fresh perspective and enthusiasm to the table—whether that means working with artists, young people, scientists, or other people trying to improve the health and happiness of other humans. The meeting of diverse fields and perspectives often makes for the most interesting projects.
Today’s post is a great example of how Twitter has changed (and vastly improved) my information gathering about technology projects. I recently put out a call for information about how museums are handling the various tasks associated with tablets—everything from where you store them securely to how you charge them and synch the content on all of them at the same time. I was also interested in reviews of iPad cases that incorporate a mechanism (e.g., strap or handle) for one-handed operation and for showing the screen to others (e.g., a small group of students in a gallery). I slapped up a Google Doc with my specific questions and asked folks to respond and include their initials.
I have a few questions for museums managing multiple iPad devices. Charging, content synch, cases/straps. Anyone? #mtogo#musetech#museumed
Below is a brief summary of what I learned about the various products available to museums for managing a fleet of iPads. You can find the original Google Doc here with all of the raw material. Once again, I’m in love with the #musetech community and how open and generous you all are. Thanks for sharing, supporting, and generally being amazing people.
With the recent news about Google Play for Education, I was curious if anyone is exploring the use of Android tablets for learning in museums. However, everyone who responded to my request is using either an iPad or an iPad mini as their tablet of choice. Furthermore, no one seems to be convinced away from Apple products just yet, especially for use by the public, because their devices are so familiar to our audiences. I’ll be keeping an eye on this situation as the cost of non-Apple tablets continues to decrease and as their usage by the general public becomes more widespread. With this in mind, you’ll note that all of the discussion below focuses on the iPad, in general, and the iPad with Retina (AKA iPad 4) in particular.
Tablets: Things to Consider
Assuming that you have already carefully considered the need and potential of tablets for your museum (and weighed these against the resources and opportunity costs required to manage them), here are a few additional questions to consider before you buy:
Who will be using the tablets? Will you be handing them out to visitors? Or will they be used exclusively by volunteers and staff? If the latter, you might have more options available that don’t require serious ruggedizing or locking down functionality.
Do you need cellular or will wifi access suffice? The cost for a wifi plus cellular device is significantly higher ($499 vs. 629 for a 16GB model). In addition, you’ll need to pay the carrier for monthly service. These costs will add up quickly if you’re managing a fleet of 10 or more devices.
How much storage do you need? Again, the cost differential can be quite high ($499 for 16GB vs. $799 for 128GB). Will you be storing a lot of images, audio, and video on the device? Do you need to download a lot of apps? Or can you use a tablet-optimized website or purpose-built app to access content that doesn’t need to be stored on the device? (In my case, user won’t have access to wifi in many of the museum spaces, so local storage size is important.)
Black or white? It may seem silly, but just like what kind of napkins to use at your wedding, someone needs to make a decision. Consider that many cases and other accessories are only available in black. (By the way, I chose fuchsia napkins. They looked lovely. Eight years later and I still remember how agonizing that decision was and how unnecessarily so.)
Do you need the latest and greatest? Is it important for you to have an iPad 4 or will an iPad 2 or 3 serve your needs? Consider that many accessories have not yet caught up to the latest model and may only be available for older versions. Also consider the cost difference. On the other hand, are you future-proofing by planning to keep the devices you buy now for several years? If so, the latest model may be the only one fully supported a few years from now.
Charging, Synching, and Storing
Most museums will have a few important requirements: a secure place to store your fleet of iPads (and possibly a laptop for synching content as well), a way to easily charge all of them at once, a way to easily synch content on all of the devices at once, and either a place that has wifi/cellular access or a solution that is easy to move (e.g., on wheels). There are many solutions that do some of these things well (e.g., charging but not synching, storing but not charging) but chances are you want to go for the simplest, all-in-one solution. Here are a few options on the market:
The Apple iPad Learning Lab – $6,299 (Includes Bretford PowerSync cart and 10 iPad 2 16GB)
An all-in-one solution (store, charge, synch) on wheels which includes storage for up to 30 iPads and space to store a MacBook. 10 iPad 2 with 16GB storage are included. Cases are not included. The Bretford PowerSync cart is also available on its own (without tablets) for $2,599.
Apple iPad Learning Lab
Bretford PowerSync Tray – $999.95
This tray charges, syncs, stores and secures up to 10 iPad devices. Cases and devices not included.
Bretford Powersync Tray
The Griffin Multidock – $699
Holds up to 10 iPads for charging and synching. It comes with a locking bar for security (lock must be purchased separately). Accommodates several case types (up to .866” H x 8.07” W x 8.96” D). Includes a space on top for laptop when synching but not a secure place to store the laptop.
InSync Transport Charge & Sync Case (For All iPad Generations) – $1925
Parasync offers a few all-in-one options but some require that you use a Parasync case (cannot hold a naked iPad). This option is a case and charging dock on wheels which holds 16 iPads, a laptop (for synching content), and can be used with a wider variety of cases.
Parasync InSync Transport Case
The Parasync case ($24.99) includes a removeable shoulder strap but no options for a handstrap.
DS-NETSAFE-IPCS Security Cabinet for iPad – $1833
This product charges and syncs up to 16 iPads. It is not on wheels.
Datamation DS-NETSAFE-IPCS Security Cabinet
The cases you choose should be the best fit for how your user will be using the device in your specific context. For my project, they will be handled by staff only and will need to be easily held up for others (e.g., a small group of students) to see. I am looking for a case that:
Will protect the device if dropped (but doesn’t have to be as rugged as a case for protecting the device from being stepped on or bashed into something by a toddler)
Integrates a hand strap for holding the device up for others to see. This might mean the ability to swivel and/or simply comfort when being held in different positions (e.g., landscape vs. portrait).
Allows for one-hand operation of the device. (See: hand strap)
Is available for an iPad 4 (many are only available for earlier models)
Ideally, would not have to be removed for charging. (Though this seems to be a tall order given my other requirements.)
Given these parameters, there are a couple of options available:
Handles all the way around for easy holding. Comes in multiple colors (including black). $39.99. Would have to be removed for charging/synching.
Discount on cases if purchased with dock. Possibly might not need to be removed for charging. Comes in one color only.
US+U – Swivel ProFolio
Acts as a full cover and, when opened, the handstrap can swivel 360 degrees. Would most likely need to be removed for charging/synching. Comes in one color only.
Studio Proper – Wallee Case and Hand Strap
Wallee Case – $39.99 plus Hand Strap – $19.99
Rubberized case with removeable handstrap
Wallee Case and Hand Strap
Setting up an Apple ID: Remember that you need a credit card associated with an Apple ID even if you only intend to download free apps.
Laptop: Do you have a laptop with iTunes loaded up that can be used for synching the iPads? Or might it be easier to purchase one for this purpose and store it with the iPads?
Other: Depending on your specific context, there are certainly other questions you’ll need to answer. For example, should you purchase Apple Care? If you’re distributing devices to the public, you’ll need to consider what the checkout process looks like (e.g., Do you take a drivers license? Is it okay for volunteers to do this?). If you’re using iPads at your information desks, you might want to think about whether or not to tether them so they don’t “walk” away.
Again, I want to thank those of you who contributed your experience and opinions in figuring out the best solution(s) available to museums. Are there other considerations I’m missing?
The group has found Facebook to be their best platform for promoting events to tother teens. The teen who spoke with my small group said that teens prefer the term “youth” to “teen.” When asked what he would like to do when visiting an out-of-town museum, he said that he loves to take photos and share them via social media.
Stories to Go: Mobile Platforms for Storytelling and Community Voice
The Walker’s mobile-optimized website for the Minneapolis Sculpture Garden features a community-based audio tour.
Opening Up Museum Studies with Social Media (COMPT Luncheon)
How can museum studies professors–and educators of all stripes–incorporate social media into their teaching to improve learning and open access to our expertise? This brief presentation (by me) covered the social dimension of learning, how social media has changed museums and its audiences, and examples of social media tools being incorporated into the curriculum.
(COMPT = Committee on Museum Professional Training)
What role can a horizontal mentor play in your professional development? Have you ever even heard of a horizontal mentor?
Horizontal Mentors are those professional peers to whom one can turn for deeper and more frank discussions, whose advice and judgment about professional and career questions one seeks and values, and whom one can call on for support. The recent rise of “horizontal” mentoring provides the opportunity to build multiple relationships within a professional network and gain insights and advice from colleagues and peers in various capacities.
Members of the Getty Leadership Institute’s NextGen Class of 2011 led a roundtable discussion during the American Alliance of Museums 2013 Annual Meeting on this topic.
Last week during their annual developer-focused conference, Google provided a first glimpse of Google Play for Education. While coverage in education and tech blogs has focused on what this new development could mean for teachers and school administrators, I wanted to provide a quick guide for those of us in museum education. What does this mean for our work with teachers and students? And how can museums play a role in providing quality educational content?
What is Google Play for Education?
An app store for educators. The store (to be launched this fall) will make it easy to search, download, and deploy apps and other K-12 learning content to multiple (Android) tablet devices.
An iPad killer? Bulk ordering for groups means that schools can easily purchase and instantly distribute content to student devices. Because of this simplicity, and more affordable hardware, some are already saying Google Play for Education will kill iPad use in schools.
Content for educators, reviewed and approved by educators. Educators will be able to search by category, grade level, and other criteria. Educators will review content submitted to Google Play for Education and categorize them with Common Core Standards. Teachers will be able to read app reviews by other teachers and share their own recommendations.
Why does this matter for museum education?
More platforms for content. If Google Play for Education takes off, it will have big implications for museums in terms of the platforms we use for creating digital learning content, including lesson plans, activities, and apps. Many content producers have been publishing in iBook or iOS apps and will need to more seriously consider developing Android apps. Google has already recruited NASA and PBS as content partners. How can museums work with Google to create high-quality content for these platforms?
It’s not just about iPad or Android apps. Teachers will be able to push out YouTube videos to students in the same way they can apps. Now is a good time to review our strategies for creating video and other multimedia content for this audience. It is also a good time to look at Chrome apps and HTML5 for delivering rich mobile content on the web that is device agnostic.
Professional development for educators. Teacher training will be essential to effective integration of tablets and digital content in the classroom. How can museum educators play a role in this training?
What do you think about this new development in K-12 education? How might your museum take advantage of this opportunity?
A woman struggles to keep her eyes open and her mind alert during a tour of an art museum. A woman’s eyes grow wide and light up as she makes a personal connection with a sculpture in that same museum. Why the difference? According to a new ad from AT&T, it’s an HTC phone running Facebook Home (an app that fills the home screen with a steady stream of Facebook posts) that makes all the difference.
The story of this woman’s museum experience caught my attention. But I’m an art lover, a museum educator, and a social media geek. What does the rest of the (perhaps less-invested) world think of this TV commercial? I turned to the social Web to find out.
So? What do you think? Is it a provocative take on how technology might bring museums to life by honoring the personal interests and experiences of visitors? Or a depressing documentary on how nothing–not even the rare beauty of great art–can earn appreciation and attention in a world obsessed with the immediate?
Perhaps fittingly, Facebook was the platform boasting a more considered and varied conversation on the topic. AT&T posted this to its Facebook page earlier this month:
A selection of the 100+ comments shows that many viewers had a strong reaction to the ad . . . but those reactions run the gamut:
Finally, the comments on the YouTube page for the ad generated some interesting debate as well:
There’s nothing like a provocative piece of advertising to spur people into diatribe mode. While AT&T may simply be trying to push some HTC phones off their shelves, I can’t help but be grateful to them for airing something that gets people talking about the role of technology in their lives. This tiny research project is also a clear reminder to me of the power of social media to help us better understand the people we are trying to engage–and to remember that there is quite a wide spectrum of emotional and intellectual positions people take on how best to experience museums (and life, in general) in mediated and un-mediated ways.
I’d love to hear your thoughts on the ad. Please share your reactions in the comments below.
Today’s Museums & Mobile event (the sixth in a series of online conferences) featured case studies from museums around the globe and some excellent food for thought. Here are my 6 key takeaways:
1. Keep it simple. No, seriously. Even simpler.
Think Angry Birds. Pinterest. Don’t overwhelm people with too many options. For example, the Museum Explorer app from National Museums Scotland features 9 objects. Nine; not nine thousand. It is based on a simple challenge: find the smelliest, oldest, ugliest, etc. objects in the museum. Have fun. Earn prizes. Done. The BMA Go Mobile website (optimized for smartphones) is another example. It is a simple and elegant guide to visiting the museum. As the BMA’s manager of interpretation, Gamynne Guillotte, said: Do one thing really well. Lose the functionality that distracts from that goal.
2. Design for “mobile first.” Or is that “tablet first”?
Here’s some good advice about web design from one smart cookie (Nate Solas of the Walker Art Center): Start with responsive design. Then add native/touch features like pinch+zoom and swipe. When mobile isn’t first, you tend to start chopping features out of your website until the design fits a mobile screen. And that’s no way to design an optimal user experience.
The Rijksmuseum took this philosophy a step further when they redesigned their website with a “tablet first” philosophy. With the goal of creating a “close” and “warm” experience, the museum built an app-style website that fits a tablet like a glove and brings people up-close-and-personal with the large and beautiful images in their collection. How? They designed an interface that makes the image primary and other information secondary. The minimalist navigation takes “keep it simple” to the extreme with only three options: Plan your visit; Collection; and About the museum. The art images are always displayed at full-screen regardless of the device. The result? A breathtakingly immersive experience. In just 3 months, over 32,000 “Rijksstudios” (a way to save, share, and create with works of art) have been created. Even more impressive: the average time spent on site on an iPad is a whopping 19 minutes. (An average of 10 minutes on other devices isn’t too shabby, either).
[image url=”http://danamus.es/wp-content/blogs.dir/3/files/2013/03/rijksmuseum.png” title=”Rijksmuseum website on a tablet” alt=”Rijksmuseum website on a tablet” alignment=”center” margin_left=”0″ margin_right=”0″ margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”0″ border=”smallBorder” shadow=”1″ width=”520″ height=”293″]
Responsive website, Rijksmuseum
3. Design sites to be task-responsive, not device-responsive.
Once upon a time, in the early days of museum mobile, we used to place a snippet of code on our websites to “sniff” out details of a user’s viewing device. We’d then feed smartphone users only a small selection of content—hours, location, etc.—based on the assumption that they must close to or inside the museum if they were (desperate enough to be) browsing the web with such a (small-screened/slow connection/etc.) device. Fast forward a few years and now people use all kinds of mobile devices for all kinds of different things.
Peter Gorgels of the Rijksmuseum offered sage advice when he said: design sites to be task-responsive, not device-responsive. Which begs the question: now that people are using their mobile devices for any manner of tasks, how do we best design on-site and site-agnostic mobile experiences that are tailored to user needs? If (device) responsive design isn’t enough, does this mean we need to provide separate experiences for different use cases (tasks)?
First, let’s tackle on-site mobile users who are focused on geolocation functionality, today’s events, and other visit-specific needs. In this case, perhaps the best solution is to make a separate app or mobile website that is optimized for on-site experiences. This doesn’t necessarily mean a slimmed down version of your regular website. A better user experience might take advantage of the kinds of native tools available on the smallest and easiest-to-carry devices: cameras, GPS, social sharing tools, etc. The result? A highly specific feature set that scaffolds the visit without distracting the visitor from the reason they came: to see what your museum has to offer in person.
You might be wondering: to app or not to app? MCA Australia reports 15 times more usage of their mobile website than their MCA Insight app. Further, they found that the “What’s On” option was 20 times (!) more popular on their mobile website than on their app. Why? Here’s my guess: as a user, I don’t want to go through the hassle of downloading an app just to find out what events and exhibitions are happening today. I typically only download an app if it is something I’ll use again. An app gives you (the designer) the ability to hyper-control the interface: if an app is going to be worth the effort for you or your users you had better design it to do the one thing it is meant to do (make a museum visit easier/better) amazingly well.
MCA Insight app, Museum of Contemporary Art Australia
Now, let’s move beyond that small slice of your mobile audience to the rest of the people using tablets and smartphones to navigate the web outside of your museum. For this group, you should build a website that is optimized for browsing, searching, sharing, saving, manipulating—all of the actions someone who isn’t busy running around a museum might have the time and inclination to do. I’m impressed by the immersive ethos of the Rijksmuseum site and look forward to seeing how other cultural institutions pull users into another world through their tablets.
But your mobile experience for off-site users doesn’t have to be all-encompassing, uber feature rich, or incredibly deep. You might serve this audience well by building something that brings wonder into their lives in ways that make them want to use it again and again. The Magic Tate Ball app is one of the most clever examples of this that I’ve ever come across. It is a simple concept (shake your phone and get a personalized “answer” in the form of an artwork) and doesn’t take much time per use. After today’s conference, I can’t wait to get my hands on another Tate app, Race Against Time. With 30 achievements to unlock, this game will give me plenty of time to get to know Tate’s collections while I’m having fun saving the world from Dr. Greyscale.
Video: Race Against Time app, Tate
4. “Success comes more from visibility than from quality.”
The intended meaning of the statement abvoe (by Agnes Alfandari of the Louvre) might have gotten a bit lost in translation. In fact, my jaw dropped a bit when I read the slide. We all know that high quality is a fundamental value of most museums. Quality is also quite critical if we want to encourage repeat use of a product. But Agnes had just given us a lot of insightful information about the people the Louvre is trying to serve with their Nintendo DS audio guide: first-time (and likely one-time) visitors. To get someone to use something for the first time requires awareness . . . and, therefore, significant promotional resources. The Louvre/Nintendo partnership was marketing genius and garnered a lot of press for both organizations. I think Agnes’s point was less that quality is not important and more that activities designed to increase visibility (read: marketing, advertising, PR) often don’t get the respect or the budgets that they deserve in museums. I have a marketing communications background and am a firm believer that we could spend all of our resources building the best mousetrap in the world—and it would be entirely useless if no one knows it exists.
Even with a small project budget, at least some percentage should be allocated to outreach. Hugh Wallace of National Museums Scotland offered a very valuable piece of promotional advice: spend some money on Facebook’s mobile app install ad format. He saw Museum Explorer app downloads double in just one month with a smaller budget than was put towards more traditional digital banner ads (which produced no measurable increase).
Speaking of publicity, I’m so sad that I didn’t hear about Open Air Philly until today. What a massively cool project. My favorite parts? First: The Association for Public Art was really smart in their incorporation of Philadelphia’s diverse voices—from inviting different community groups (e.g., advocates against domestic violence, teen poets, etc.) to kick off each evening with their own audio messages to partnering with public radio to record influential “Voices of Philly.” What impressed me even more was the fact that public submissions were completely uncensored (though there was a way for users to flag inappropriate content). A poll of today’s conference attendees asked if we had done a project with community submissions that were uncensored. 28% said yes, 25% said no but would be open to it, and 47% said no way. (One of these days I’ll write a post about museums’ persistent fear of inappropriate responses despite consistently and staggeringly few such submissions ever received. I’d also like to link radical trust with increased outreach and visibility. But these are topics for another day.)
5. Know who your audience really is and what they really want.
The National Museums Scotland tech team takes an interesting approach to designing for audiences: things like age and demographics are taken out of the discussion entirely during the planning phase. Audiences are defined as people already familiar with apps, people looking for a certain kind of experience, etc. These behaviors and preferences, as Hugh points out, could potentially belong to someone of any age.
During her keynote, Agnes Alfandari described the young, overwhelmed, first-time, and often foreign visitors that make up the majority of visits to the Louvre; this is the audience the Nintendo DS audio guide was designed to serve. The Louvre routinely designs quite different mobile experiences for visitors to special exhibitions; these visitors tend to be repeat users, French-speaking, and relatively non-technical. In their quest to meet the needs of the first group, the Louvre bounced around a few ideas which were subsequently rejected. One such idea was the ability to personalize a tour. In the end, this feature seemed too much at odds with the experience of first-time visitors, who are often anxious to get started after a long wait to enter the building. These visitors are also not typically familiar enough with the collection or facility to be in a good position to make selections for a custom tour. The bottom line? A good idea is only as good as its fit for your specific circumstances and the audience you are trying to serve.
[image url=”http://danamus.es/wp-content/blogs.dir/3/files/2013/03/louvre.jpg” title=”Queue at the Louvre” alt=”Queue at the Louvre” alignment=”center” margin_left=”0″ margin_right=”0″ margin_top=”0″ margin_bottom=”0″ border=”smallBorder” shadow=”1″ link=”http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrisboland/7983892689/” target=”_parent” width=”640″ height=”426″]
Despite similar content, in comparing audio guides to the mobile apps the Louvre offers for download, Agnes identified two distinct audiences. People looking for audio tours, she says, will just use what you give them when they arrive at the museum. People who purchase or download apps, on the other hand, are much more demanding. They are comparison shopping, are not necessarily time constrained, and are therefore in a position to be more choosy.
Audio guide Nintendo DS and Audio guide apps, Musée du Louvre
6. Stick to measuring what matters.
One of the most useful things I learned in graduate school was during a Visitor Studies course in which we were admonished not to bother asking a question or collecting data (e.g., on a survey or in an interview) on a subject unless we planned to take action based on the answers. Otherwise, collection and analysis could easily turn into a colossal waste of time. (Hat tip to Jessica Luke for that gem!) As I dug more deeply into web analytics later in my career, I became a convert to Avinash Kaushik‘s philosophy of focusing on “the critical few” and avoiding “paralysis by analysis.” And so I was prepared to filter as I gaped at the array of app analytics presented by the Tate’s Elena Villaespesa. The good news is that there are many tools to empower you to make data-driven decisions (see: App Annie and App Figures for store/download metrics, Flurry for tracking actions and engagement, and Distimo for what seems like everything you could possibly want to know). The trick will be to streamline your analysis using only those tools and numbers that will help you reach your goals.
One of the basic tenants of good evaluation is that you need to know what you are trying to achieve before you can know how to measure it. Let’s look at two different app examples to get a sense of how to map goals to metrics. The Magic Tate Ball app is, at heart, about marketing. Brand recognition and retention are key goals. In this case, downloads and frequency of use would be appropriate metrics. Tate’s exhibition apps, on the other hand, are about enhancing the on-site visit and not necessarily about getting the visitor to use it more than once. In this case, metrics like dwell time, popular stops, and click events would be appropriate data to track.
Just as fans and followers as metrics don’t offer much in the way of actionable insights for social media initiatives, neither are downloads the only metric you should be tracking for apps. You will need to dig in deeper if you really want to know what is engaging people most, what features are being used, and what people are sharing (or not). The MCA Australia analyzed app user behavior and found that the “Show only artwork around me” feature of MCA Insight was twice as popular as the keypad (in which a visitor types in a number associated with a work). However, the people who used the keypad used it like crazy. So that feature stayed. MCA also used analytics to investigate whether the app’s built-in social sharing features were being used. Answer: not really. But what MCA did find was that people were taking photos—plenty of them—and posting them to Instagram. In response, the museum begin promoting the hashtag #MCANow. Visitors quickly contributed hundreds of photos via Twitter and Instagram. The MCA even built a display system in the galleries to show a live feed of the latest visitor-contributed photos as well as a website to showcase contributions.
The moral of the story: find out what’s going on and do something meaningful with the data.
MCANow display, Museum of Contemporary Art Australia
These are just a few of the many fantastic insights shared during this short but oh-so-useful conference. Kudos to the conferenceorganizers for another excellent event. If you’re yearning to learn more about this topic, check out the newly released 2013 Museums & Mobile Survey data that identifies and tracks key trends for mobile strategy within the cultural sector.
On Digital Learning Day (February 6, 2013), the Verizon Foundation and its partners hosted a Twitter chat for educators and learning organizations to share ideas and best practices, ask questions, and learn about the latest digital tools and tech-based resources available. I created a Storify archive of the highlights of the discussion that I found most relevant to museum educators looking to support teachers and learning through technology.
I spend a lot of time testing, tracking, and analyzing data. I’m not talking about the work I do here at Ogilvy–I’m talking about all of the daily efforts I undertake to manage my Type 1 diabetes. My life is full of numbers and tech gadgets, from a meter to test my blood glucose to mobile apps like dLife (for recording insulin doses) and Low Carb Diet Assistant (for counting everything from carbs to glasses of water consumed). Being somewhat of a geek, I’m always looking for the next best tool to help me track—and, even better, to help me analyze and interpret—data about my own health behaviors.
And so it was within this context that my ears perked up during last week’s DHCX conference, as Ernesto Ramirez of the Center for Wireless and Population Health Systems shared his thoughts on the role of self-tracking as an effective tool for health behavior change.
In his work, Ernesto focuses on how to apply emerging technologies (e.g., sensors, mobile, social networking) to better the health of individuals and populations through measurement and analysis of behavioral patterns. Think Fitbit for counting steps or Zeo for measuring sleep—or even Hugo Campos’ project to photograph every meal he eats and post to Flickr.
I sat down with Ernesto for a Q&A on the “quantified self” movement and how it might be applied to public health in the near future.
[toggle title=”Q: What does “quantified self” mean?” initial=”block” style=”light”]
Quantified self started as a group [see the Quantified Self website: “a collaboration of users and tool makers who share an interest in self knowledge through self-tracking”] but people are increasingly using the term to reference a movement and as a catchall for self-data collection. There are over 50 Quantified Self Meetup groups around the world made up of people who use self-tracking for personal use, people that build tools and apps for businesses, researchers, etc.
The important thing to remember is that this is not just about creating spreadsheets—it’s about collecting data in whatever form is important to you…whether it is tracking colors that represent how you feel or taking photos of what you eat.[/toggle]
[toggle title=”Q: How does the quantified self lead to behavior change?” initial=”block” style=”light”]
You get instantaneous feedback. For example, you can plug a blood pressure cuff into an iPhone and wirelessly send the data to yourself or to your doctor. You can also look at longitudinal data about yourself—both trends over time as well as correlations between things. With the ability to look at all kinds of different inputs, we can see better how things connect to each other. And we can create adaptive models for specific and meaningful behavior change in individuals. The behavior change model closely mirrors the scientific method—you observe, make a hypothesis, and so on. It’s really about what happens to you when you start to understand information about yourself.
[toggle title=”Q: How do we motivate people to use self-data collection tools?” initial=”block” style=”light”]
It isn’t so much about motivating people to use the tools—you can put people on the path but you can’t make people be self-motivated. That said, things like gamification and good design can help by making things fun, easy, and worthwhile.[/toggle]
[toggle title=”Q: How might we collect this kind of data on a population level?” initial=”block” style=”light”]
People think of the quantified self as “this is me” but we can quickly scale up. Large-scale data sharing would allow us to focus on specific groups rather than the model we typically use, which is based off of population distribution. We could really flip research on its head and start the other way—with a focused segment rather than with everyone. When people start collecting data about themselves, they begin to understand and care about how policy affects their health, how their workplace environment affects their health, and so on in terms of how their personal health is connected to the bigger picture.[/toggle]
[toggle title=”Q: Would you say quantified self falls under prevention or treatment?” initial=”block” style=”light”]
If I had to choose where to start, I would say prevention first because this is where you’ll get the biggest bang for your buck. But we’re seeing the biggest adoption with treatment—for example, people who have recently been diagnosed with a condition become invested in their own health through self-data collection. They become evangelists and advocates, and they often have a strong desire to share their methods with others.[/toggle]
[toggle title=”Q: What will need to happen to take the quantified self movement to the next level?” initial=”block” style=”light”]
We need to try, fail, and learn. Instead of an ROI model, I’d like to see us focus on a “Return on Health” model. This is a very long-tail discussion—you’ll see the real results in the next 20-30 years.[/toggle]