On Digital Learning Day (February 6, 2013), the Verizon Foundation and its partners hosted a Twitter chat for educators and learning organizations to share ideas and best practices, ask questions, and learn about the latest digital tools and tech-based resources available. I created a Storify archive of the highlights of the discussion that I found most relevant to museum educators looking to support teachers and learning through technology.
Have you ever been kicking around an important question or idea and wished that you could just bring all the smartest people you know together for a little while to hash out the answer and pick their brains? I have two big issues I’m been mulling over for a while now and my magic genie appeared in the form of an invite to join the advisory board for Social Media Week DC. All I had to do after that was click my heels three times, email favor requests to some of my amazing colleagues, and *poof* my wish will be coming true! (Yes, I know I’m mixing storylines and metaphors here but I’m just SO excited.)
While I’m being somewhat selfish in my selection of topics and speakers (I want those burning questions answered!), I think everyone working in museums and/or education is in for a treat with these two upcoming events. If you are in DC, I encourage you to attend these free sessions. If you are unable to participate in person, rest assured that we’ll be live-tweeting, Storify-ing, and blogging about what we learn!
Defining and measuring social media success in museums and arts organizations
Friday, February 22, 10:30-noon (stay for lunch!), National Museum of the American Indian
Join social media practitioners from local museums and arts organizations for a lively discussion about the value of social media to our institutions. Are our current social media practices engaging online communities to their greatest potential? What outcomes are we hoping to achieve? And how can we better evaluate the success of our efforts and take our social media engagement to the next level?
Our panelists will:
*share recent research about how social media has transformed the arts in America
*present lightning talks on the social media outcome that matters most to them
*discuss your ideas, needs, and concerns
Come prepared to share your burning questions or big idea! Following the formal program, you are invited to buy your own lunch in the museum’s Mitsitam Cafe and take part in informal discussions in smaller groups.
Social studies: How educators are using social media
Thursday, February 21, 5-6:30pm, The Fridge DC
How are teachers using social media in the classroom? And how can your organization or museum best reach and support educators by providing relevant resources, facilitating social activities, and connecting them with your social content? Join us for a discussion of the rapidly evolving role of social media in teaching and professional development in the education sector. Speakers include a science teacher, the organizer for DC’s EdTech MeetUps, and a museum educator.
Other museum-related events during Social Media Week DC:
- Behind the Scenes Tweetup at Smithsonian’s National American History Museum, Tuesday, February 19, 1-4pm
- A Mobile Smithsonian, Wednesday, February 20, 3-5pm
Museum-related events during Social Media Week New York:
- Telling Stories with Scientists, Wednesday, February 20, 6:30-9:30
- ARTIFACTS: A Gathering of Innovators in the Arts & New Media, Wednesday, February 20, 8-11pm
Image credit: Rutgers University, Online Mini-MBA™: Social Media for the Arts
I’m starting to collect some illustrative examples (via Storify) of the many ways that art museums are attempting to interact, educate, and inspire their audiences via social media. My goal is to document a representative sample of platforms, formats, content types, tone, and style. I have only begun to scratch the surface and am hoping to hear from you:
On December 3, 2012, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington, D.C., opened itself up to the Reddit community when it hosted the museum’s first ever AMA (“Ask me Anything”). I asked archivist Becky Erbelding, curator Kyra Schuster, and social media community coordinator Elissa Frankle to share their experiences.
1. What is an AMA and whose idea was it to host one?
Becky: Reddit is a popular online forum where users “upvote” or “downvote” various pictures, links, questions, topics. There are lots of subforums for cute animal pictures, interesting facts, crazy memes. One of the more popular subforums is “IamA” where people post interesting facts about themselves and invite a chat about what their lives are like. President Obama did “I Barack Obama, President of the United States. AMA” over the summer. The AMAs are always fascinating to me because they give people the opportunity to ask questions, with the popular questions rising to the top (as people vote) and encourage dialogue with the person (the IamA) and with other Redditors.
The system usually seems to take care of itself, with obnoxious questions downvoted and popular, interesting, questions rising to the top. Whenever I tell people what I do for a living, they always have questions about the Museum and about my work and when I give public presentations, the Q+A at the end is always my favorite part. I talked to Kyra about it and then emailed Elissa to see what she thought of the idea of the Museum doing an AMA.
Kyra: Last month a friend sent me a link to a group of WWII and Holocaust post-liberation photographs someone had posted to Reddit. Becky had seen the same posting. At the time we both thought that it might be a good thing to put our information out there so that when things like this are posted to Reddit, they would know to get in touch with us.
We get so many questions all the time, so the AMA was another great way to get it out there. Becky and I have worked on programs for the website and using Facebook & Twitter, so this was another way for us to get our information out there to a new audience.
Elissa: When Becky got in touch with me about doing an AMA, she mentioned seeing an AMA with a Holocaust survivor that had generated significant interest and, shockingly, received questions that were generally respectful. Throughout grad school and my early professional career as an educator, I’d been treated to the old saw about how curators are stodgy and stuffy, and most importantly highly protective of their content and not open to inviting the public to interact with it. Becky’s message to me was not only a chance for the Museum to reach out to a new audience and be a little audacious about opening up our material and staff members to questions, but also turned any myths I’d heard about curators on their head.
2. Can you describe the technical process?
Becky: You can view everything on Reddit without signing up, but to vote on a post or question, or to start a new chat like an AMA, you need to have an account. Signing up for an account is pretty easy and free. You don’t even need to give an email address, just a user name and password. To start a new chat, you click “Submit a link” and then choose that you want to submit text in the “IamA” subforum. It’s very easy. We did figure out that we needed to refresh the page to get new questions and comments, but since you can sort the new items to the top, that helped us figure out how the chat was progressing.
Kyra: We agreed that we should have a unified professional username (USHMMCurators) and that Becky and I would work together to answer the questions. Elissa would point out when new questions were posted and find the links we wanted to connect back to on the Museum’s website, while Becky and I worked together to craft the answers.
Elissa: The three of us didn’t have any experience using Reddit. As far as I knew before Monday, it was a place where people who didn’t have anything nice to say went to write mean responses to well-meaning OPs (original posters).
With help from friends and colleagues, we figured out these steps:
- Sign up for an account on Reddit.
- Navigate using the links in the header to “IAMA.”
- Scroll down and look at the right-hand sidebar. All the way at the bottom, there is a box that says “Moderators.” Click on “Message the moderators” at the top of this box.
- Write a message telling the mods who you are, what institution you’re from, who’s going to be doing the AMA, and when you will open the AMA. (They wrote back right away saying “Awesome!”)
- Figure out what you’re doing for proof. IAMA requires that you prove who you are, since you’ll be saying (for instance) “I’m a curator at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Ask Me Anything!” If you can’t prove who you are, sometimes the mods will take down your thread (as happened with “Stephen King,” who started an AMA during ours but couldn’t prove that he was the author of “The Shining”). Becky and Kyra used their business cards, which show their names, their titles, and the name of the institution, but were able to cover up the contact information
- Write a brief introduction: Who are you? What do you do at your institution? What kinds of questions would you like to be asked?
- Your AMA begins at the moment you start the thread, so wait until the time you would like to start to click on “Submit a Link” in the IAmA subforum. Post your title (“We are curators at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Ask us anything!”), then post your description and proof of identity.
- Submit and wait for questions to come in. (This is a good time to tweet out the link to your AMA and post it on Facebook, Google+, etc.)
- When they do come in (and they will!), all you need to do is click on “reply” below a question. It often helps to sort the thread by “new”: above the stream of questions, there is a drop-down link that will start out saying “top”. Click on the down arrow and select “new.” When you refresh the page, the newest responses will show up.
- At the very top right of the page, above your username, there is an envelope icon. This is your inbox. When mods respond to your initial question, their response will show up here. This is also where responses to your responses will show up, as well as any private messages you receive. It can be difficult to find new responses that reply to your replies, so look for them here. We did receive two private messages during the chat as well.
- Have a system for posting. Becky and Kyra crafted replies together in a Google Doc and I posted them (as USHMMCurators) when they are completed.
3. Were you surprised by the number or quality of the questions?
Becky: We originally planned to chat between 3pm and 5pm, but we were having so much fun we stayed until the last possible moment. So we hosted for about 3 hours, and also posted a series of follow-up answers the next morning. The big question for us was whether or not we were going to get “trolled.” I saw an AMA with a Holocaust survivor a few months ago, and the questions were so respectful and intelligent that I was sure that we would be okay. And we were! There were a few trolls, but they got so many downvotes that they didn’t even show up after a while. The nice thing was seeing how people answered the trolls–either by downvoting or by engaging in debate with them, defending us. We never had to address anything we weren’t comfortable with. It was a lot of fun. There were questions we didn’t expect to be asked, questions we expected that never came up, and we had the opportunity to share stories, information, ways to get involved, and even some opinions. Most of the questions and comments were respectful and asked with genuine curiosity, which was great.
Kyra: We had a great time! I was pleased that we were able to educate people about the Museum itself and not just about our collection. One person didn’t realize that the other Holocaust museums around the country work independent from us, so I’m glad we were able to mention that. I was also kind of hoping we would get asked ANYTHING like “What is your favorite sandwich” or “What do you do when you’re not at work” (that kind of thing), but they were all Holocaust or Museum related questions.
Elissa: Because Becky and Kyra are outstanding question-answerers, all I had to do was sit in the room, keep up with the Twitter and Facebook chatter about the AMA, pull links off our website as needed to augment their answers, and occasionally keep an eye on the stream to see where new questions had come in.
I was very pleasantly surprised at the wisdom of the crowd. The questions and answers that received the most up-votes were about oral histories, Becky and Kyra’s “strangest object” stories, and a serious question about Holocaust denial, which (in my esteem as a reader) were some of their strongest responses as well, and the ones that we hope many users read and took to heart. We did receive some repeat questions, particularly about the 2009 shooting of Officer Stephen Tyrone Johns, why there are Holocaust museums in the United States, non-Jewish victims of the Holocaust, and the process of becoming a curator, but the team was able to pick up nuances of these questions or point the questioners back to other responses. In one great instance of the community picking itself up, a repeat question was answered so well by another user that we decided not to answer it ourselves.
It was exhilarating to be in the room while the questions were asked and answered. I felt that we opened up dialogue in a way we have not yet been able to master on our Facebook and Twitter channels. I hope this is just the beginning of reaching out to the community on Reddit.
4. How does this initiative fit into your museum’s mission? What audience are you reaching?
Becky: Curators always love talking about our collections. We’ll take any excuse we can do to that. We also always want to reach out to younger audiences, and Reddit is a young, technically savvy audience. As long as the tone stayed respectful, there were really no downsides. It was free and easy way to reach out to a new audience.
Kyra: I know that we’re always looking for new ways to reach out to different audiences. While one of my colleagues (who is less tech savvy) thought a lot of the questions were silly, I personally thought this was a great way to reach out to a younger audience who otherwise we may not have the opportunity to connect with.
Elissa: Becky wisely suggested that we have the AMA before the Museum’s first 20th anniversary event, which will take place this Sunday (December 9) in Boca Raton. While this wasn’t part of our marketing strategy to drum up support for the anniversary tribute and tour, the AMA was an unexpected boon to the registrations and excitement around the event. All three of us will be at the event this weekend, so Becky and Kyra were able to speak first-hand to questions about handling donations at the event, and plug the tour and the anniversary in general. We saw a spike in registrations that day, which may in part be attributed to the AMA. Since I’m relatively new (two months) to the social media coordinator, I’m still getting a handle on who our social constituents and consumers are. I look forward to finding out more about who these Redditors are, and how they fit in with, overlap with, and are different from consumers of information on our other social media channels.
For a long time, there has been concern that if we open our content and experts to questions, we are inviting deniers and participants whose viewpoints are at odds with the message of the Museum into our conversations. The fact that we invited unknown users to ask us anything–really anything!–and we had three solid hours of civil, warm, respectful, inspiring conversation with a community that has a reputation for being decidedly uncivil is a huge first step towards pursuing more open dialogue across all of our online channels.
5. Is this a one-off or do you anticipate future AMAs? Are there other ways your museum plans to participate on Reddit?
Becky: I would do it again anytime. We had a lot of fun. Beyond that, we proved that it can be done, and can be done HERE, which is a huge thing.
Kyra: I would love to do it again, and as I said while we were typing away, I think it would be great to see other Museum staff do it as well. I think it would be great to give the Museum an official voice on Reddit – not to constantly scan for comments or correct people—but to be available to answer questions that come up when people find items or have historical questions.
Elissa: I can’t wait to bring other staff members to Reddit. There was a lot of interest during the AMA in discussions of present-day genocide, so we are considering asking the Committee on Conscience, the arm of the Museum concerned with post-Holocaust and present-day genocide, if they would be interested in hosting their own AMA. I see possibilities for our teacher educators and trainers of law enforcement, judges, and the military to get involved as well. (I wouldn’t mind doing one myself, either!) I would jump at the chance for us to be the bearers of accurate content and to get involved in honest ongoing dialogue about the Holocaust on both sides, asking AND answering questions, sharing content and seeking ongoing engagement. I hope that other museums will join us there, too.
Have you seen other museums using Reddit? Do you think this is a good way to conduct outreach to new audiences? Share your questions and thoughts below.
“We think with the objects we love; we love the objects we think with.” This was a central tenant of MIT professor Shelly Turkle’s talk on “evocative objects at the 2009 American Association of Museums annual meeting. For those of us who love museums—and for those of us lucky enough to work in them—the emotional and intellectual power of objects is quite familiar. This power—the “evocative” nature of an object—comes from its relationship with a person, according to Turkle. She has left me, years later, wondering about these critical questions:
How can museums best facilitate evocative experiences and relationships with objects? How can we best provide access to the deep and transformative experiences that objects can provoke?
In her work, Turkle cites Donald Woods Winnicott’s idea of a “transitional object,” something that demonstrates a fluidity between the self and the object. In other words, an object that inspires an experience in which it is easy to lose track of where we end and the object begins. For me, this idea underscores the ways in which we have very personal, human-like relationships with everyday things—particularly those that evoke memoir, a sense of a personal or communal past. One example that comes to mind is a pair of ruby slippers from The Wizard of Oz in the collections of the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History.
Dorothy’s slippers are not just historical props from a Depression-era film but are, to me, the embodiment of the wonder and joy I felt as a child watching the film with my grandmother at Radio City Music Hall. They make me think about the mysterious bond that often exists between grandparents and grandchildren, an inter-generational appreciation of the imagination, of the importance of love and creativity in the intellectual and emotional growth of a child. But even more—the slippers feel like they belong to me or are in some way an extension of myself. I know from the lines that form to see the shoes that many Smithsonian visitors feel similarly, each thinking with the objects in their own way. Such evocative experiences may come more easily for visitors when objects are easily recognized from past encounters.
Objects provide powerful opportunities for self-reflection. Turkle gives the example of visiting a collector’s home and the kinds of questions that begin to arise as one contemplates the collector’s choices: What about this object made it qualified to be part of this collection? Why did the collector choose to display it in her bedroom? What would I want to view while lying in bed? These questions inevitably lead to deeper inquisitions, like: Who am I? Objects tell us something about identity; they give us clues about what it means to be human.
Turkle also referenced Freud’s concept of the “uncanny” (unfamiliar yet familiar) and the “cognitive dissonance” that comes when confronted with an uncanny object. This idea, as well as the concept of “liminality” (something betwixt and between), suggests additional ways that objects can evoke something mysterious, almost mystical, in our encounters with them. In her discussion, Turkle suggested that the curatorial challenge is not to make things become evocative objects but rather to let them be evocative. In her own recap of the annual meeting, museum experience designer Nina Simon blogged about her frustration with this idea: “Only a small population of people walk into a museum and “feel” the power of the objects without assistance . . . We need help to make dumb objects ‘sing.’” So the question becomes:
How can museums assist visitors—not by helping them put an object into a set category—but by facilitating an exploration of an object’s complexity and boundlessness? What can museums do to exploit the “uncanny,” the “liminal,” the opportunities for self-reflection?
Other thinkers have explored the concept of “numinous” objects, those items that are invested with power or spirit. Numinous objects can ignite transcendental experiences, connecting visitors with the people and spirit of earlier times. One collector and blogger describes such a feeling when viewing the top hat Abraham Lincoln wore to Ford’s Theatre on the night of his assassination. She writes: “When we stand before it, we “feel” or “know” Lincoln in a way that reading, visualizing, or even seeing a photo of it can’t compete with. We want to see it—make pilgrimages to see it; we’d touch it if we could. We have numinous experiences with that hat.”
This brings us to the most challenging question raised by Turkle to those of us working in museums and new media:
Can digital objects be evocative objects?
She offers the example of an architecture student interacting with the personal aspects of Corbusier’s drawings—the coffee stains, the feeling of the same bits of paper in her hand that were once in his. When the objects were digitized, however, the student felt that both she and the objects had somehow become depersonalized, anonymous. Browsing the digital archive she forgets where she is, becomes distracted, starts sending colleagues emails—things she never experienced when interacting with the actual artifacts. For Turkle, digitization takes us away from the body and the ways we experience the world with them. Museums must explore, along with the audiences we serve, the question: what are we gaining and what are we losing when objects become digital? How can we facilitate satisfying experiences that cross the lines of “in-person” and “online”?
Dr. Turkle’s work is many-layered and challenges us all to think about the ways in which objects can deepen and enhance human experiences. What do you think about some of the questions I’ve raised? What examples can you give of evocative objects? How do you see museums maximizing their potential, connecting our visitors with our collections?
This post was originally published on the Social Marketing exCHANGE blog.
Last week, Ogilvy launched Social@Ogilvy, a global, cross-discipline team of social experts from across all of Ogilvy’s businesses delivering social solutions. Social media is changing our clients’ businesses and we have been quietly building the largest social media marketing communications network in the world.
This exciting news has sparked some discussion and questions about terminology: what’s the difference between social media (or “social media marketing”) and social marketing? This is not a new dialogue—confusion has been brewing ever since the breakthrough of social media and its subsequent impact on marketing, communications, and many other disciplines.
- Marketing through social media involves having conversations and creating engagement online through a variety of social media tools, such as blogs, wikis, online communities, community websites, video, photos, and social networking platforms. The term “social media” was first used within the past decade
- Social marketing is a discipline that attempts to change awareness, attitudes, and behaviors as they are related to advancing social causes. Since its introduction in 1971, social marketing has been used to address many of the world’s most pressing issues, from public health to public safety to environmentalism. Methods include community outreach, direct mail, advertising, media relations, partnership development, events, interpersonal outreach, materials dissemination . . . and social media.
Indeed, in today’s communications environment social media has an important and critical role to play in social marketing initiatives. Good social marketing campaigns contain social media tactics that are based—as the rest of the campaign elements are—on research-derived insights into the campaign’s intended audience. For more on the potential benefits of social media to social marketing initiatives, see this blog post from Executive Vice President and Group Director Jennifer Wayman and many other posts on the Social Marketing exCHANGE blog about the intersections and application of social media to social marketing.
I spend a lot of time testing, tracking, and analyzing data. I’m not talking about the work I do here at Ogilvy–I’m talking about all of the daily efforts I undertake to manage my Type 1 diabetes. My life is full of numbers and tech gadgets, from a meter to test my blood glucose to mobile apps like dLife (for recording insulin doses) and Low Carb Diet Assistant (for counting everything from carbs to glasses of water consumed). Being somewhat of a geek, I’m always looking for the next best tool to help me track—and, even better, to help me analyze and interpret—data about my own health behaviors.
And so it was within this context that my ears perked up during last week’s DHCX conference, as Ernesto Ramirez of the Center for Wireless and Population Health Systems shared his thoughts on the role of self-tracking as an effective tool for health behavior change.
In his work, Ernesto focuses on how to apply emerging technologies (e.g., sensors, mobile, social networking) to better the health of individuals and populations through measurement and analysis of behavioral patterns. Think Fitbit for counting steps or Zeo for measuring sleep—or even Hugo Campos’ project to photograph every meal he eats and post to Flickr.
I sat down with Ernesto for a Q&A on the “quantified self” movement and how it might be applied to public health in the near future.
What does “quantified self” mean?
Quantified self started as a group [see the Quantified Self website: “a collaboration of users and tool makers who share an interest in self knowledge through self-tracking”] but people are increasingly using the term to reference a movement and as a catchall for self-data collection. There are over 50 Quantified Self Meetup groups around the world made up of people who use self-tracking for personal use, people that build tools and apps for businesses, researchers, etc.
The important thing to remember is that this is not just about creating spreadsheets—it’s about collecting data in whatever form is important to you…whether it is tracking colors that represent how you feel or taking photos of what you eat.
How does the quantified self lead to behavior change?
You get instantaneous feedback. For example, you can plug a blood pressure cuff into an iPhone and wirelessly send the data to yourself or to your doctor. You can also look at longitudinal data about yourself—both trends over time as well as correlations between things. With the ability to look at all kinds of different inputs, we can see better how things connect to each other. And we can create adaptive models for specific and meaningful behavior change in individuals. The behavior change model closely mirrors the scientific method—you observe, make a hypothesis, and so on. It’s really about what happens to you when you start to understand information about yourself.
How do we motivate people to use self-data collection tools?
It isn’t so much about motivating people to use the tools—you can put people on the path but you can’t make people be self-motivated. That said, things like gamification and good design can help by making things fun, easy, and worthwhile.
How might we collect this kind of data on a population level?
People think of the quantified self as “this is me” but we can quickly scale up. Large-scale data sharing would allow us to focus on specific groups rather than the model we typically use, which is based off of population distribution. We could really flip research on its head and start the other way—with a focused segment rather than with everyone. When people start collecting data about themselves, they begin to understand and care about how policy affects their health, how their workplace environment affects their health, and so on in terms of how their personal health is connected to the bigger picture.
Would you say quantified self falls under prevention or treatment?
If I had to choose where to start, I would say prevention first because this is where you’ll get the biggest bang for your buck. But we’re seeing the biggest adoption with treatment—for example, people who have recently been diagnosed with a condition become invested in their own health through self-data collection. They become evangelists and advocates, and they often have a strong desire to share their methods with others.
What will need to happen to take the quantified self movement to the next level?
We need to try, fail, and learn. Instead of an ROI model, I’d like to see us focus on a “Return on Health” model. This is a very long-tail discussion—you’ll see the real results in the next 20-30 years.
For more on the topic of quantified self, see:
- Ernesto’s DHCX presentation slides
- “The Patient of the Future,” Technology Review
- “Your Body is an API,” Wired
- “Quantified Self + Motivational Hacks = The Programmable Self,” Forbes
- “Monitoring Your Health With Mobile Devices,” The New York Times
This post was originally published on the Social Marketing exCHANGE blog.
This paper was originally published for Museums and the Web 2011. It was co-authored by Dana Allen-Greil, National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution, USA; Susan Edwards and Jack Ludden, J. Paul Getty Trust, USA; and Eric Johnson, Monticello, USA. (See citation and Creative Commons information.)
Social media are altering how museums interact with the public. But how are they affecting the ways that museum professionals approach their jobs? How are large organizations dealing with new pressures for a more nimble, experimental approach to content creation, and a more personal level of engagement with staff? How do museums manage the ‘brand’ with so many people creating content, while also being flexible and bringing out the many voices in an institution? With the authors’ multiple perspectives, this paper highlights some of the ways that social media are changing the ways that staff communicate and work together, and addresses issues such as whether to distribute management of social media content across an organization or to centralize efforts; how to find tactics for educating and training staff about what social media are; and how social media can further the mission, set new expectations for current staffing positions held within the museum, and promote a cultural shift that embraces collaborative, agile ways of interacting with our peers and our audiences.
Keywords: social media, leadership, management, strategy, organizational structure
The Smithsonian’s first YouTube contest was created to dispel the notion that history is boring and to engage people with the story of their flag and national anthem. After being closed for nearly 2 years of renovations, the museum was looking to make a splash with the debut of a state-of-the-art home exhibition for the Star-Spangled Banner. Partnering with USA WEEKEND for marketing muscle, we received over 800 eligible entries and thousands of people rated and commented on their favorite singers. The grand-prize winner performed at the museum and at the Orioles game in Baltimore on Flag Day.
This project won an American Association of Museums Gold MUSE Award for outstanding achievement in museum media in the category “Community.”
Listen to a podcast interview of me by Jonathan Finkelstein of LearningTimes for MuseumTimes.org.
The early years of the Internet offered museums new possibilities for reaching broader audiences, and yet the anonymous character of most on-line interaction posed significant challenges for those who sought to foster a sense of community in the digital realm. In recent years, social media and other new tools have enabled museums to more successfully cultivate on-line relationships and even blur the lines between their physical and virtual communities. Borrowing terminology from German sociologist Ferdinand Tönnies, this paper uses the archetypal qualities inherent in traditional village life (Gemeinschaft) vs. life in big cities (Gesellschaft) as a framework for understanding museum approaches to on-line community. While the formally constrained (gesellschaft) expert-novice relationship that has so long been the paradigm for museums is still valued, we find compelling reasons to also explore the potential of gemeinschaft “whole person” interactions to change the nature of community relationships with museums. Using this framework, we review examples from the National Museum of American History and other museums using technology to foster community.